We dont know much about the Cantabrian people. Today our best source of written information corresponds to the stories written by Roman historians about what the soldiers told when they finished their military service. According to the Romans, the Cantabrian people were a warrior people, very fierce, who organized themselves in matriarchal societies and who lived in defenses settlement called“castros”. Of all the Cantabrian tribes, those who lived in what we know now like Laredo were the ones with the most Celtic influence. They were in contact with the territory of the “Autrotigones”, an ethnic group with Celtic origin, with whom in some periods they traded and sometimes fought. In combat, the Cantabrians performed coordinated military tactics on horseback. The Roman army used them as mercenary cavalry. In a Roman
The natives of the Bay always lived in close relationship with the Cantabrian Sea. In Laredo there are sites of Prehistory in the Upper Paleolithic, showing remains of worked shells and sea products in separate caves off the coast. The data collected by the Romans about these people indicate that they were not yet good sailors but that they already used small boats and did maritime trade. After the Cantabrian Wars, in the Roman army existed, at least from the second century AD., a military cloth standard called CANTABRUM that came from the Cantabrian auxiliary units recruited by Rome. The Roman cavalry itself used original maneuvers of the Cantabrians: the "Impetus cantabricus", a direct attack in mass to break the enemy lines, and the "Circulus cantabricus", advancing towards the enemy and then turn in a circle throwing darts.
After the Second Cantabrian Wars, the Emperor Augustus forced the Cantabrians to abandon their forts in the hills and down to live in the flat area.
El Pico del Hacha (The Ax Hill) is the name of a hill located in the southern part of Laredo. Currently, it shows a representation of the native forests: the mixed deciduous oak wood and the Cantabrian holm oak forest. The next video shows the current situation of the "El Pico del Hacha" Cantabriam fort:
The "El Retorín cantabrian fort" (Bronze Age-Iron Age) is located in the eastern part of Cantabria, on the eastern margin of River Asón-Gándara, between Seña, Laredo, Colindres and Liendo. The month of October of 2004 was located by Fernando Pablos, neighbour of Laredo, in February of 2005 the archaeologist Pedro Rasines contrasted the news and in April of the same year, he added it to the archaeological inventory of Cantabria in collaboration with the archaeologist Jesús Ruíz Cobo.